One of the effects of Covid-19 is the increase in cases of depression, either because of having suffered from the disease or because of aspects related to the changes produced by the pandemic. Fortunately, there are different ways to cope with this pathology and get back to feeling satisfied with life.

Although depression, also known as major depressive disorder, is very common in the general population (10% of men and 20% of women will suffer from it at some point), research has associated Covid-19 with an increased likelihood of depression by up to 39%, according to a study published in the BMJ.

According to National Geographic, it is estimated that millions of people show depressive symptoms (fatigued, apathetic or anxious) after overcoming Covid-19. This goes hand in hand with the phenomenon known as post-viral depression, which also occurs with other illnesses such as the common flu or mononucleosis, due to inflammatory changes, among other factors.



According to Madhukar Trivedi, psychiatrist and founding director of the Depression Clinical Care and Research Center at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, told National Geographic, symptoms of post-covid depression usually appear two to three months after suffering from the disease, and can last for months video porno.

With several studies observing the same thing, it seems that the link is neither coincidental nor imaginary. However, the relationship between Covid-19 and the subsequent onset of depression is still unclear. Ziyad Al-Aly, director of the centre for clinical epidemiology at Washington University in St Louis, has several theories.


One is related to inflammation, and how it might affect certain areas of the brain that regulate emotions. The other, according to Al-Aly, suggests that the virus attacks the lining of blood vessels, which could alter the blood and oxygen supply to the brain, and ultimately compromise areas that regulate emotions.

However, beyond the biological factors, there are also psychological and environmental ones. Going through the illness in seclusion and isolation, the fear of long Covid, or having negative feelings at the time of illness can contribute to a depressive state.



Although depression for the sufferer can feel like a tunnel with no exit, there are different mechanisms and actions that can help the patient to overcome it. Among them, of course, is psychotherapy, and one of the most recommended is cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), to help change harmful thought patterns.

Physical exercise is also a great ally to get out of depressive states, especially that related to Covid-19, as it helps to lower inflammation. On the other hand, exercise is also associated with the release of hormones such as serotonin, which contributes to a feeling of happiness.


Likewise, trying to maintain a balanced diet that includes vegetables, fruits, legumes, and/or fish is associated with a reduction in symptoms of depression. In addition to psychotherapy, and especially if you do not have access to psychotherapy, it is essential to have support networks, such as friends and family, or a community. This can help to ease burdens and make you feel less alone.

Another aspect that can help a lot in overcoming depression is regularising sleep. This is why it is recommended to establish bedtime rituals, such as turning off screens at night, dimming lights and trying to go to bed at the same time.


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Many people worry every day about dying from natural catastrophes, fatal accidents, or even zombie invasions. However, there is little or nothing outrageous about the manner in which most die. Such is the case of strokes, the second cause of death worldwide and the first cause of disability.

In just one year, almost three million women and two and a half million men die from strokes. That means that right now, as you read this, at least one person is having a stroke and possibly dying from it. On average, they occur every 4 minutes.

Sounds scary, right? To think that something like this could happen to you porno. Avoid being part of the statistics by incorporating this list of recommendations into your life to avoid having a stroke.

what is a stroke?




It may seem repetitive, it may be the most common and repetitive medical chant in the medical repertoire, but it is an unavoidable truth. Keeping moving and leading a life where sports and physical activity have a place helps maintain good health and, luckily, a good figure.

This does not mean that you should give your life and soul to the gym every day or play sports at a professional level. At a minimum, and especially if you are a person just beginning to exercise, you can start with walks of 40 minutes or more for at least 4 days a week.



Salt is delicious, we know. In the kitchen, it stands out for its surprising power to give flavors strength, in addition to its versatility and its leading role in any kitchen. However, eating excess salt increases the possibility of hemorrhagic strokes, since it affects and is a direct consequence of many conditions such as high blood pressure.




We know that it is not always easy (or cheap, really) to be healthy. The easiest food to reach, as well as the cheapest, is usually the one that directly affects your weight.

Be careful not to ride in fringes such as obesity, a condition that promotes the onset of diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Likewise, evaluate your Body Mass Index from time to time: a number that will help you know the percentage of fat you have in your body.


It has been proven through numerous studies that tobacco is one of the main causes of strokes worldwide. Therefore, as an extreme measure to avoid them, it is recommended to limit or cut out the consumption of products associated with nicotine in both public and private places.

Likewise, it is recommended to limit the consumption of alcoholic beverages and avoid under any circumstances the consumption of illicit drugs and narcotics.

And you, what do you think of these recommendations to avoid a stroke? Do you think any other was left out of this list? Use the comment box below to share it!



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Monkeypox: How it is Transmitted and who is most at Risk of Contagion?

Monkeypox: How it is Transmitted and who is most at Risk of Contagion?

Monkeypox is a rare disease associated with infection from the monkeypox virus. The virus belongs to the Poxviridae virus genus. It falls under the same category as the cowpox virus and variola virus that causes smallpox.


Ways Monkeypox is Transmitted

Monkeypox virus transmits through close contact with a person, animal, or material contaminated with the virus. The smallpox virus can also cross from a mother to her fetus through the placenta. It could also spread to humans from animals by handling wild animals, using products made from infected animals, or a scratch or bite of an infected animal. It may also spread through direct contact with sores or body fluids of an infected person or animal. It could also spread when someone touches clothing or linen that came into contact with sores and body fluids.

But primarily, monkeypox spreads between humans through direct contact with body fluids, scabs, and infectious sores. It can also transmit from one person to another during intimate contact, such as sex, touching body parts, cuddling, and kissing. Prolonged face-to-face contact could also cause the spread of the virus through respiratory secretions. As for now, it isn’t sure if the virus can be transmitted through vaginal fluid or semen. Researchers have yet to discover animals that naturally maintain the virus, but African rodents are the prime suspects of spreading the monkeypox virus to humans.


Who are at High Risk of Monkeypox?

The world already seems weary of fighting the Covid pandemic porno français. But with the recent outbreak of the monkeypox virus, we all want to know whether we are at risk. Studies have shown that most adults and children with healthy immune systems are likely to weather the storm. But two demographic groups are at high risk.

One comprises the older adults. While this group is most likely to succumb to this virus, most people under this age group are somewhat protected by their smallpox vaccination. The other group is infants younger than six months. Fortunately, studies have shown that the current outbreak is yet to affect the younger generation. The older adults already vaccinated for smallpox are likely to escape the monkeypox outbreak with only mild symptoms. But the bottom line is that even the older adults vaccinated for smallpox decades ago are still at a high risk of monkeypox infection.

Exposure to monkeypox isn’t limited to a particular demographic. Therefore, everyone should be responsible for their health and the community’s well-being, which should start with building awareness. So far, no death related to monkeypox has been reported. But researchers and medical experts caution against contact with high-risk groups such as older adults and children. The duration in which immunity from smallpox vaccination should last is unknown. So, the only way you can protect yourself from this outbreak is to get vaccinated as soon as now.

The common forms of transmission of monkeypox include contaminated objects and surfaces and direct contact with an animal or person with a confirmed case of monkeypox. While everyone is at risk of this contagious disease, infants under six months and older adults are more vulnerable.


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Sickle Cell Disease

The oxygen in the air that humans breathe needs to be carried all over the body. This function is performed by the red blood cells which carry the oxygen to all parts of the body.

The hemoglobin in the red blood cells carry the oxygen. Normally red blood cells have hemoglobin A and are in a round shape and are soft which make it possible for the red blood cells to squeeze through tiny blood vessels. Normally red blood cells have a life span of approximately 120 days after which they are replaced by fresh cells.

Those with sickle condition have red blood cells containing an abnormal type of hemoglobin called Hemoglobin S. The red blood cells become crescent (sickle) shaped and hard making it difficult for the cells to pass through small blood vessels. Moreover the red blood cells in this condition have a life span of only 16 days. When sickle-shaped cells plug up small blood vessels, lesser blood reaches various parts of the body. This damages the tissue that does not receive normal blood flow. This is what causes the complications of sickle cell disease.

Sickle cell disease is common in persons of African ancestry. It also affects persons of South and Central America, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, Arabia, and East India.

Sickle Cell Trait is a condition where both Hemoglobin A and Hemoglobin S are produced. Thus the person with Sickle Cell Trait are generally healthy. Sickle Cell Tait can be determined by a blood testfollowed by a laboratory technique called Hemoglobin Electrophoresis will determine the type of hemoglobin you have.

There are various kinds of sickle cell disease. The most common are Sickle Cell Anemia, Sickle-Hemoglobin C Disease, Sickle Beta-Plus Thalassemia and Sickle Beta-Zero Thalassemia.

Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder. The hemoglobin genes are inherited from the parents on two sets… one from each parent. For example if one parent has Sickle cell Anemia and the other is normal, the child will have Sickle Cell Trait. If one parent has Sickle Cell Anemia and the other has Sickle Cell Trait, there is 50% probability that the child will have Sickle Cell Disease. If both parents have Sickle Cell Trait, there is a 25% probability that the child will have Sickle Cell disease.


The lack of oxygen flow to tissues can lead to a number of complications.

Acute Chest Syndrome – This is a serious condition caused by infection of trapped red blood cells in the lungs. This results in fast or difficult breathing, chest pain, and coughing.

Anemia (low red blood cell count) – Patient is easily tired
Aplastic Crisis – This leads to temporary lack of production of red blood cells which result in paleness, low activity, fast breathing and fast heartbeat.
Bone Necrosis – Degradation of bone tissue which can lead to hip replacements and other complications.
Hand and Foot Syndrome – Painful swelling in the hands and feet

Severe Infections – Sepsis (blood stream infection), meningitis, and pneumonia. The risk of infection is increased because the spleen does not function properly.
Splenic Sequestration Crisis – The spleen is the organ that filters blood. Rapid enlargement can result due to entrapment of sickled cells in the spleen. This condition can be fatal.

Stroke – Occurs when sickled cells create a blockage within the brain. Signs include seizure, weakness in the arms and legs, speech problems, and loss of consciousness.


There is no universal cure for sickle cell disease. Research in gene therapy, the ultimate universal cure, is currently underway which hope to offer a permanent and effective cure for this disorder.

Although, there is no cure, management of the disorder can help a patient live with the disorder. Management of patients with sickle cell disease starts with early diagnosis, preferably in the newborn stage and includes vaccinations, penicillin prophylaxis and folic acid supplementation.

Complication management includes administration of oxygen, antibiotics, pain management, intravenous fluids, blood transfusion and surgery. The patients are best managed in a comprehensive multi-disciplinary program of care. Advent of Sickle cell crises may include the administration of oxygen, pain-killing drugs, and oral and intravenous fluids to reduce pain and prevent complications. Anemia can be corrected by blood transfusions which boost the number of normal red blood cells in circulation. In children, regular transfusions also can help prevent recurring strokes, other disabling nervous system complications and enlargement of the spleen before they become life-threatening. Newer drugs and treatment are being utilised like the anticancer drug hydroxyurea. Transplanting cord blood is another emerging treatment.

With proper diagnosis and preventive care the quality the disorder may not necessarily be fatal and the length of life can be managed effectively. In 1970, the estimated median expected survival was 20 years for affected persons living the U.S. With advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of complications, the life expectancy of persons with sickle cell disease has now improved.


RH factor

Blood Groups have a +ve or -ve appended to them. For example O+ve or O-ve. What does this +ve or -ve signify and whar relevance does it have on our health.

The +ve or -ve refers to the presence or absence of two Rhesus genes called the D or d which are inherited from each parent. A person is Rh(D) -ve if he/she has got a d gene from each parent making them d/d. A person is Rh(D) +ve if he/she has got D gene from each parent making them D/D or a D and d from the parents (either ones) making them D/d or d/D. Thus it is possible to have a Rh(D) -ve child from a father who is Rh(D)+ve and mother who is Rh(D) -ve. If the father has both a D and d gene; the offspring may inherit the d gene and shall be Rh(D)-ve if the mother is also Rh(D) -ve. The child from a D/D father and D/d or d/d mother will always be Rh(D) +ve since it will get a D from the father and either a D or a d from the mother. The d gene is not relavant. What is the presence or absence of the D which will make a person Rh(D) +ve or Rh(D) -ve.

All this is fine. The problem is that the Rh(D) +ve blood contains the D antigen which stimulates the Rh(D) -ve blood into producing antibodies against it.. A Rh(D) +ve woman would never produce an antibody against a Rh(D) -ve child, as +ve blood does not produce anti-d – there is no anti-Rh(d). However the problem comes where the mother is Rh(D) -ve while the child is Rh(D) +ve.

Erythroblastosis faetalis is one form of Rhesus disease. Red blood cells from the baby’s blood stream may enter the blood stream of the mother across the placenta, which cause the mother to make antibodies to the baby’s Rh factor. These antibodies cross the placenta and destroy the baby’s red blood cells. This destruction causes the baby to become anaemic and it can die before birth. If the baby does not die before birth, its bone marrow produces extra red blood cells which are immature and releases these into the baby’s blood steam. The haemoglobin from the broken down red blood cells breaks down into bilirubin, which is released into the mother’s blood stream across the placenta and cleared through her metabolism. But, after the baby is born, the bilirubin builds up in it’s blood stream, causing kernicterus, which is a syndrome characterised by poor feeding, poor body tone, seizures and poor breathing which may result in death. Hydrops faetalis is another form, also resulting from breakdown of red blood cells due to Rh incompatibilites, causing severe anaemia before birth. The baby is born swollen with a large liver, an enlarged heart and fluid on the lungs and in the tummy.

In such cases prevention is to be exercised. A blood test should be done at the start of pregnency to determine the D factor of the mother. If it is a Rh(D) -ve mother, further tests will be performed throughout the pregnancy to ensure that her blood is not producing Rh antibodies against her baby`s blood. If a bleed from the placenta should occur at any time during pregnancy and the foetal blood is Rh(D) positive, this would result in antibodies being produced. This is why it is essential to keep a note of when blood tests are due and what the results are.

Further she should be treated with a dose of anti-Rh antibody at about 28 weeks of pregnancy. This would help to prevent antibodies being produced if an unsuspected placental bleed were to then occur, or had already occurred within the preceding 72 hours of the injection. If this has not been done, then the mother should receive an anti-Rh gamma globulin within 72 hours of delivery. This way, the blood cells are destroyed before the three days are up and her own immune system is not provoked into producing its own anti-Rh(D).

It is highly recommended that an anti-D injection be given after any incident which could result in red Rh(D) positive cells becoming present in the mother`s bloodstream, whether this be medical intervention where Rh(D) blood has been used, a fall which may cause a placental bleed, or a miscarriage.

If the baby is born with either of the above two Rh diseases, then exchange transfusion, where equal amounts of blood are put in and taken out, is performed. Exchange transfusions can also be carried out before birth while the baby is still in the womb, if measurements of bilirubin in the amniotic fluid are becoming dangerously high.